Kibbutz Definition: A Collective Vision of Community and Agriculture


The term “kibbutz” is a unique concept deeply rooted in the history and culture of Israel. It represents a form of collective community and agricultural settlement that has been a significant part of the Israeli experience. In this article, we will explore the kibbutz definition, its origins, its evolution, and its enduring impact on Israeli society.

Defining Kibbutz

A “kibbutz” is a collective community in Israel where residents live and work together, sharing resources and responsibilities. The term is derived from the Hebrew word “kibbutz,” which means “gathering” or “cluster.” Kibbutzim (plural of kibbutz) were established as a response to the Zionist movement’s aim of settling Jewish immigrants in Israel and building a utopian society that emphasized cooperation and agricultural labor.

Origins and Historical Development

The roots of the kibbutz movement can be traced back to the early 20th century, when Jewish immigrants, primarily from Europe, began to settle in what was then Ottoman Palestine. These pioneers sought to create self-sustaining agricultural communities and promote a sense of communal living. The first kibbutz, Degania Alef, was founded in 1909. The kibbutz movement grew rapidly, especially during the early years of the British Mandate over Palestine.

Key Features of a Kibbutz

  1. Collective Ownership: Kibbutzim are characterized by communal ownership of property, resources, and production. Members pool their resources and share responsibilities.
  2. Agricultural Focus: Historically, kibbutzim were primarily centered around agriculture. Members worked the land, raised livestock, and engaged in various farming activities.
  3. Equality and Socialism: Kibbutzim often adhered to socialist principles, with an emphasis on economic and social equality. Decisions were made collectively, and wealth and resources were distributed fairly.
  4. Child-Rearing and Education: Children in kibbutzim were often raised communally, with nursery and educational facilities managed collectively by the community.

The Evolution of Kibbutzim

Over time, kibbutzim have evolved and adapted to changing societal and economic conditions. Many kibbutzim have diversified their activities, expanding into industrial, technological, and service sectors, moving beyond traditional agriculture. This evolution has allowed them to remain economically sustainable while retaining a sense of communal living and shared values.

Kibbutzim Today

Today, kibbutzim are not as uniform as they once were. While some adhere to traditional communal principles, others have transitioned to a more hybrid model, incorporating elements of privatization and individual ownership. Many kibbutzim have also opened their doors to non-members, offering accommodation and experiences for tourists and volunteers.


The kibbutz definition encompasses a multifaceted concept that has played a vital role in shaping Israeli society. These communities embody the values of cooperation, equality, and shared responsibility, contributing significantly to Israel’s agricultural and social development. While some kibbutzim have changed with the times, they continue to reflect the resilience and adaptability of an idea born from a vision of communal living and the Jewish connection to the land of Israel.

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